Investigating the Use of a Nonspeech Task to Measure Tongue–Jaw Differentiation: Findings Across Typical Development Purpose Clinically, a task of alternating tongue lateralization has been used to evaluate the ability to independently control the tongue and jaw, with jaw movement interpreted as a sign of poor tongue–jaw differentiation. However, there is a lack of normative data regarding jaw movement during this task and whether this ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 06, 2018
Investigating the Use of a Nonspeech Task to Measure Tongue–Jaw Differentiation: Findings Across Typical Development
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Hailey C. Small
    Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University
  • Tara McAllister
    Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University
  • Maria I. Grigos
    Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Hailey C. Small: hcs280@nyu.edu
  • Editor-in-Chief: Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer
    Editor-in-Chief: Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer×
  • Editor: Jeannette Hoit
    Editor: Jeannette Hoit×
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 06, 2018
Investigating the Use of a Nonspeech Task to Measure Tongue–Jaw Differentiation: Findings Across Typical Development
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2018, Vol. 27, 1030-1038. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0089
History: Received June 12, 2017 , Revised October 17, 2017 , Accepted March 21, 2018
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2018, Vol. 27, 1030-1038. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0089
History: Received June 12, 2017; Revised October 17, 2017; Accepted March 21, 2018

Purpose Clinically, a task of alternating tongue lateralization has been used to evaluate the ability to independently control the tongue and jaw, with jaw movement interpreted as a sign of poor tongue–jaw differentiation. However, there is a lack of normative data regarding jaw movement during this task and whether this changes over the course of development. This study quantified relative tongue and jaw movement during alternating tongue lateralization for typical speakers across age ranges and examined whether degree of jaw movement varies as a function of age.

Method Participants were 39 typical children, adolescents, and adults ranging from 6 to 29 years old. A motion capture system was used to track tongue and jaw movement during an alternating tongue lateralization task, and the average relative contribution of the jaw to tongue lateralization was determined for each participant.

Results Age did not correlate significantly with the average relative contribution of the jaw to tongue lateralization. Typical children, adolescents, and adults exhibited wide variability in the degree of jaw movement during this task.

Conclusion Variability among typical speakers in alternating tongue lateralization performance makes it challenging to determine if/when performance should be considered atypical. Clinical findings from this task must be interpreted with caution.

Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.6626222

Acknowledgments
The authors thank Harriet Klein for comments on an earlier version of this report, Julie Case for conducting the clinician ratings, and Sydney DeBari, Joanne Li, Joanna Murphy, Sarah Warnet, Janelle Brito, and Megan Cummings for assistance with recruitment and data collection. Portions of this work were presented at the 2015 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention in Denver, Colorado, and the 2016 Conference on Motor Speech in Newport Beach, California.
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