Elements of Phonological Interventions for Children With Speech Sound Disorders: The Development of a Taxonomy Purpose Our aim was to develop a taxonomy of elements comprising phonological interventions for children with speech sound disorders. Method We conducted a content analysis of 15 empirically supported phonological interventions to identify and describe intervention elements. Measures of element concentration, flexibility, and distinctiveness were used to compare ... Clinical Focus
Newly Published
Clinical Focus  |   May 03, 2018
Elements of Phonological Interventions for Children With Speech Sound Disorders: The Development of a Taxonomy
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Elise Baker
    Discipline of Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • A. Lynn Williams
    East Tennessee State University, Johnson City
  • Sharynne McLeod
    Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia
  • Rebecca McCauley
    The Ohio State University, Columbus
  • Disclosure: A. Lynn Williams, Sharynne McLeod, and Rebecca McCauley are co-editors of the book Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children, published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing, as referred to in the manuscript, and receive royalty payments on the sale of the book. Elise Baker has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: A. Lynn Williams, Sharynne McLeod, and Rebecca McCauley are co-editors of the book Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children, published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing, as referred to in the manuscript, and receive royalty payments on the sale of the book. Elise Baker has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Elise Baker: elise.baker@sydney.edu.au
  • Editor-in-Chief: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor-in-Chief: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Editor: Kristie Spencer
    Editor: Kristie Spencer×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Newly Published / Clinical Focus
Clinical Focus   |   May 03, 2018
Elements of Phonological Interventions for Children With Speech Sound Disorders: The Development of a Taxonomy
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0127
History: Received August 17, 2017 , Revised January 2, 2018 , Accepted January 29, 2018
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2018_AJSLP-17-0127
History: Received August 17, 2017; Revised January 2, 2018; Accepted January 29, 2018

Purpose Our aim was to develop a taxonomy of elements comprising phonological interventions for children with speech sound disorders.

Method We conducted a content analysis of 15 empirically supported phonological interventions to identify and describe intervention elements. Measures of element concentration, flexibility, and distinctiveness were used to compare and contrast interventions.

Results Seventy-two intervention elements were identified using a content analysis of intervention descriptions then arranged to form the Phonological Intervention Taxonomy: a hierarchical framework comprising 4 domains, 15 categories, and 9 subcategories. Across interventions, mean element concentration (number of required or optional elements) was 45, with a range of 27 to 59 elements. Mean flexibility of interventions (percentage of elements considered optional out of all elements included in the intervention) was 44%, with a range of 29% to 62%. Distinctiveness of interventions (percentage of an intervention's rare elements and omitted common elements out of all elements included in the intervention [both optional and required]) ranged from 0% to 30%.

Conclusions An understanding of the elements that comprise interventions and a taxonomy that describes their structural relationships can provide insight into similarities and differences between interventions, help in the identification of elements that drive treatment effects, and facilitate faithful implementation or intervention modification. Research is needed to distil active elements and identify strategies that best facilitate replication and implementation.

Acknowledgment
The first and third authors acknowledge support from an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant DP130102545.
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