Variable Practice to Enhance Speech Learning in Ultrasound Biofeedback Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Single Case Experimental Study Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of practice variability, through prosodic variation during speech sound training, in biofeedback treatment for children with childhood apraxia of speech. It was hypothesized that variable practice would facilitate speech sound learning. Method Six children ages 8–16 years ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 15, 2017
Variable Practice to Enhance Speech Learning in Ultrasound Biofeedback Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Single Case Experimental Study
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jonathan L. Preston
    Syracuse University, NY
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Megan C. Leece
    Syracuse University, NY
  • Kerry McNamara
    Syracuse University, NY
  • Edwin Maas
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Jonathan L. Preston: jopresto@syr.edu
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Lynn Williams
    Associate Editor: Lynn Williams×
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 15, 2017
Variable Practice to Enhance Speech Learning in Ultrasound Biofeedback Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Single Case Experimental Study
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2017, Vol. 26, 840-852. doi:10.1044/2017_AJSLP-16-0155
History: Received September 12, 2016 , Revised January 26, 2017 , Accepted February 4, 2017
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2017, Vol. 26, 840-852. doi:10.1044/2017_AJSLP-16-0155
History: Received September 12, 2016; Revised January 26, 2017; Accepted February 4, 2017

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of practice variability, through prosodic variation during speech sound training, in biofeedback treatment for children with childhood apraxia of speech. It was hypothesized that variable practice would facilitate speech sound learning.

Method Six children ages 8–16 years with persisting speech sound errors due to childhood apraxia of speech participated in a single-subject experimental design. For each participant, 2 speech sound targets were treated with ultrasound visual feedback training: one with prosodic variation (i.e., practicing sound targets in words and phrases spoken fast, slow, loud, as a question, command, and declarative), and one without prosodic variation. Each target was treated for half of the 1-hr session for 14 treatment sessions.

Results As measured by standardized effect sizes, all participants showed greater change on generalization probes for sound targets treated under the prosodic variation condition with mean effect sizes (d 2) of 14.5 for targets treated with prosodic variation and 8.3 for targets treated without prosodic variation. The average increase in generalization scores was 38% in the prosodic variation condition compared to 31% without.

Conclusions Ultrasound visual feedback may facilitate speech sound learning and learning may be enhanced by treating speech sounds with explicit prosodic variation.

Supplemental Materials https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5150119

Acknowledgments
This study was supported by the National Institute for Health grant R03DC013152 (awarded to J. Preston). Thanks to Kara Comins, Greta Sjolie, and Monique Uy, for their assistance with this project.
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