Fear of Negative Evaluation, Trait Anxiety, and Judgment Bias in Adults who Stutter Purpose Persons who stutter (PWS) and those with social anxiety disorder may exhibit fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and anxiety in social situations. However, the information processing biases that perpetuate these characteristics have had limited investigation. This study investigated judgment bias in social situations. Method Participants included 50 ... Research Article
Research Article  |   May 17, 2017
Fear of Negative Evaluation, Trait Anxiety, and Judgment Bias in Adults who Stutter
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Shelley B. Brundage
    George Washington University, Washington, DC
  • Katherine L. Winters
    George Washington University, Washington, DC
  • Janet M. Beilby
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Shelley B. Brundage: brundage@gwu.edu
  • Editor: Julie Liss
    Editor: Julie Liss×
  • Associate Editor: J. Scott Yaruss
    Associate Editor: J. Scott Yaruss×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   May 17, 2017
Fear of Negative Evaluation, Trait Anxiety, and Judgment Bias in Adults who Stutter
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2017, Vol. 26, 498-510. doi:10.1044/2017_AJSLP-16-0129
History: Received July 28, 2016 , Revised October 31, 2016 , Accepted January 13, 2017
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2017, Vol. 26, 498-510. doi:10.1044/2017_AJSLP-16-0129
History: Received July 28, 2016; Revised October 31, 2016; Accepted January 13, 2017

Purpose Persons who stutter (PWS) and those with social anxiety disorder may exhibit fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and anxiety in social situations. However, the information processing biases that perpetuate these characteristics have had limited investigation. This study investigated judgment bias in social situations.

Method Participants included 50 adults who stutter and 45 age- and gender-matched fluent persons who do not stutter (PWNS), who made up the control group. Participants completed the Interpretation and Judgmental Questionnaire (Voncken, Bögels, & deVries, 2003), and threat scores were calculated.

Results There were no significant differences between PWS and PWNS in social threat or nonsocial threat scores. When the PWS group was divided on the basis of FNE and compared with PWNS participants without heightened anxiety (n = 35), the PWS with high FNE had significantly higher total social threat scores than the PWS with low FNE. The three groups did not differ in threat ratings for ambiguous or profoundly negative social situations.

Conclusions Judgment bias in PWS is mediated by the magnitude of FNE present; not all PWS exhibit judgment bias for social situations. Treatment implications include the need for psychosocial support addressing the negative impacts on quality of life and restrictions on social engagement that stuttering may cause in some individuals.

Acknowledgments
This project was completed in partial fulfillment of the second author's master's thesis at George Washington University. The first and second authors received Columbian College of Arts and Sciences dean's travel funds in support of this project. This project was supported in part by a Curtin University Research Fellowship to the first author. We thank the National Stuttering Association for assistance with participant recruitment. We thank Kathy Viljoen for her assistance with participant recruitment, and Emily Lowther and Daniela DiGuido for their assistance with data entry. We thank Adrienne Hancock and Michael Bamdad for comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.
Order a Subscription
Pay Per View
Entire American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology content & archive
24-hour access
This Article
24-hour access