Language Development in Children With Cleft Palate With or Without Cleft Lip Adopted From Non–English-Speaking Countries Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether language skills differed between children with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate (CP±CL) who were adopted into an English-speaking home from a non–English-speaking country (late English exposure [LE]) and children with CP±CL raised from birth in an English-speaking home ... Research Article
Research Article  |   May 17, 2017
Language Development in Children With Cleft Palate With or Without Cleft Lip Adopted From Non–English-Speaking Countries
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Amy R. Morgan
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Claudia Crilly Bellucci
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Jody Coppersmith
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Sebastian B. Linde
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Arthur Curtis
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Meredith Albert
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Mary M. O'Gara
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Kathleen Kapp-Simon
    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, IL
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Amy Morgan: amymorgan757@gmail.com
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Lynn Williams
    Associate Editor: Lynn Williams×
Article Information
Development / Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Language Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Research Articles
Research Article   |   May 17, 2017
Language Development in Children With Cleft Palate With or Without Cleft Lip Adopted From Non–English-Speaking Countries
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2017, Vol. 26, 342-354. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-16-0030
History: Received February 29, 2016 , Revised August 4, 2016 , Accepted October 7, 2016
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2017, Vol. 26, 342-354. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-16-0030
History: Received February 29, 2016; Revised August 4, 2016; Accepted October 7, 2016

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether language skills differed between children with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate (CP±CL) who were adopted into an English-speaking home from a non–English-speaking country (late English exposure [LE]) and children with CP±CL raised from birth in an English-speaking home (early English exposure [EE]).

Method Children (51 LE, 67 EE), ages 3;0 (years;months) to 9;0, completed the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), Preschool Second Edition or Fourth Edition. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of age of adoption and time in an English-speaking home on language skills, as measured by the CELF-P2 and CELF-4.

Results Children with CP±CL who were adopted scored less well on all language indices, with mean adjusted differences between LE and EE children ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD on the CELF index scales. Only 53% of the EE children and 57% of the LE children obtained scores above 90 on all indices. For LE children, younger age at adoption was associated with better language skills.

Conclusion CP±CL increases risk for language delay, with the highest risk for LE children. LE children with CP±CL should receive language services soon after adoption.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Shriners Hospitals for Children under Grant 71004-CHI (Kathleen Kapp-Simon, principal investigator). The authors would like to thank the child participants and their families who so generously gave of their time and energy.
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