The Relationship Between Grammatical Development and Disfluencies in Preschool Children Who Stutter and Those Who Recover Purpose The dual diathesis stressor model indicates that a mismatch between a child's endogenous linguistic abilities and exogenous linguistic contexts is one factor that contributes to stuttering behavior. In the present study, we used a developmental framework to investigate if reducing the gap between endogenous and exogenous linguistics factors would ... Research Article
Newly Published
Research Article  |   December 09, 2016
The Relationship Between Grammatical Development and Disfluencies in Preschool Children Who Stutter and Those Who Recover
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Julia Hollister
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Loma Linda University, CA
  • Amanda Owen Van Horne
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Patricia Zebrowski
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Julia Hollister: jhollister@llu.edu
  • Editor: Shelley Gray
    Editor: Shelley Gray×
  • Associate Editor: Shelley Brundage
    Associate Editor: Shelley Brundage×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Fluency Disorders / Newly Published / Research Article
Research Article   |   December 09, 2016
The Relationship Between Grammatical Development and Disfluencies in Preschool Children Who Stutter and Those Who Recover
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0022
History: Received February 27, 2015 , Revised October 9, 2015 , Accepted July 2, 2016
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0022
History: Received February 27, 2015; Revised October 9, 2015; Accepted July 2, 2016

Purpose The dual diathesis stressor model indicates that a mismatch between a child's endogenous linguistic abilities and exogenous linguistic contexts is one factor that contributes to stuttering behavior. In the present study, we used a developmental framework to investigate if reducing the gap between endogenous and exogenous linguistics factors would result in less disfluency for typical children, children who recover from stuttering (CWS-R), and children who persist.

Method Children between 28 and 43 months of age participated in this study: 8 typical children, 5 CWS-R, and 8 children who persist. The children were followed for 18 months with language samples collected every 6 months. The Index of Productive Syntax (Scarborough, 1990) served as a measure of endogenous grammatical ability. Length and complexity of active declarative sentences served as a measure of exogenous linguistic demand. A hierarchical linear model analysis was conducted using a mixed-model approach.

Results The results partially corroborate the dual diathesis stressor model. Disfluencies significantly decreased in CWS-R as grammatical abilities (not age) increased. Language development may serve as a protective factor or catalyst for recovery for CWS-R. As grammatical ability grew and the gap between linguistic ability and demand decreased; however, none of the three groups was more likely to produce disfluencies in longer and more complex utterances.

Acknowledgments
The data reported in this study were part of a multisite grant from the National Institutes of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (Grant R01# DC05210) in conjunction with the University of Illinois. PI: E. Yairi. We would also like to thank Bryan Brown and Rebecca Alper for assisting with reliability measures, Joshua Zhang and Sam Van Horne for their expertise in statistical analysis, and Edward Conture for his insight into the DDS model and his helpful comments on an earlier draft of this article. Last, we would like to thank all the parents and children who participated in this study.
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