Goodness and Accentedness Ratings of /hVt/ Tokens by Aware and Naive Listeners Purpose This study compares goodness and accentedness ratings of speech tokens rated by listeners who are naive to and aware of speakers' native language backgrounds. Listener responses to open-ended questions regarding goodness and accentedness ratings are also examined. Method Twenty-eight monolingual speakers of U.S. English served as listeners. ... Research Article
Research Article  |   November 01, 2016
Goodness and Accentedness Ratings of /hVt/ Tokens by Aware and Naive Listeners
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Amber D. Franklin
    Miami University, Oxford, OH
  • Kara A. Oksanen
    Miami University, Oxford, OH
  • Kaitlyn E. Gilfert
    Miami University, Oxford, OH
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Amber Franklin: franklad@miamioh.edu
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Jack Ryalls
    Associate Editor: Jack Ryalls×
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   November 01, 2016
Goodness and Accentedness Ratings of /hVt/ Tokens by Aware and Naive Listeners
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2016, Vol. 25, 620-633. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0106
History: Received July 21, 2015 , Revised April 2, 2016 , Accepted April 19, 2016
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2016, Vol. 25, 620-633. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0106
History: Received July 21, 2015; Revised April 2, 2016; Accepted April 19, 2016

Purpose This study compares goodness and accentedness ratings of speech tokens rated by listeners who are naive to and aware of speakers' native language backgrounds. Listener responses to open-ended questions regarding goodness and accentedness ratings are also examined.

Method Twenty-eight monolingual speakers of U.S. English served as listeners. Listeners were presented with 5 blocks of /hVt/ tokens. Each block represented a different vowel target and comprised correct and incorrect productions from English, Spanish, Korean, and Japanese speakers. Listeners rated goodness and accentedness using a 9-point Likert scale and explained their decision-making criteria when judging goodness versus accentedness.

Results There is a high positive correlation between goodness and accentedness. Both naive and aware listeners assigned poorer ratings when judging goodness compared with accentedness, but results varied on the basis of target accuracy. Aware listeners assigned better goodness and accentedness ratings compared with naive listeners. This difference was highly statistically significant. Both accentedness and goodness ratings are susceptible to listener bias.

Conclusions Goodness and accentedness are highly correlated yet distinct measures. Goodness is more reflective of target accuracy than is accentedness. Native English tokens were affected by listener bias to a greater extent than nonnative English tokens.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health; Predoctoral Fellowship F31 HD046412-05. Support was also provided by the ASHA 2014 Students Preparing for Academic Research Careers (SPARC) award. Special thanks to members of Miami University’s English Language Learning Pronunciation Lab for assistance with participant recruitment and data collection and to Mitch Bebee from Miami University’s Statistical Help Desk.
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