Using Spaced Retrieval With External Aids to Improve Use of Compensatory Strategies During Eating for Persons With Dementia Purpose This study was designed to determine whether spaced retrieval (SR), when paired with an external memory aid, is an effective technique to teach persons with dementia to use compensatory swallowing strategies. A secondary purpose was to learn whether speech-language pathologists naive to the study aims would judge posttraining sessions ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 01, 2016
Using Spaced Retrieval With External Aids to Improve Use of Compensatory Strategies During Eating for Persons With Dementia
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jeanette E. Benigas
    West Chester University, PA
  • Michelle Bourgeois
    University of South Florida, Tampa
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Jeanette E. Benigas: jbenigas21@gmail.com
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer
    Associate Editor: Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer×
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Special Populations / Older Adults & Aging / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2016
Using Spaced Retrieval With External Aids to Improve Use of Compensatory Strategies During Eating for Persons With Dementia
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2016, Vol. 25, 321-334. doi:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0176
History: Received October 6, 2014 , Revised June 15, 2015 , Accepted December 3, 2015
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2016, Vol. 25, 321-334. doi:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0176
History: Received October 6, 2014; Revised June 15, 2015; Accepted December 3, 2015

Purpose This study was designed to determine whether spaced retrieval (SR), when paired with an external memory aid, is an effective technique to teach persons with dementia to use compensatory swallowing strategies. A secondary purpose was to learn whether speech-language pathologists naive to the study aims would judge posttraining sessions as improved, or safer, in comparison to baseline sessions, thereby validating the changes in behavior due to SR training to use external aids during meals.

Method A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to evaluate the effects of teaching compensatory swallowing behaviors (i.e., chin tuck, alternation of liquids and solids, lingual/finger sweep) to 5 nursing home residents diagnosed with dementia and coexisting dysphagia.

Results SR training with the use of a visual aid was functionally related to improvements in 2–3 compensatory swallowing behaviors for each of the 5 participants.

Conclusions Study outcomes paired with social validation ratings demonstrated that persons with dementia could learn compensatory swallowing behaviors for perceived safety during intake. Because participants were eating in a quiet and controlled environment, generalization to the typical dining environment remains unknown, and further research is needed to investigate the long-term impact of this training protocol.

Acknowledgments
We thank Concept Rehabilitation for hosting recruitment and data collection within their facilities and Lyndsay Reno for her assistance throughout this project.
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