Early Expressive Language Skills Predict Long-Term Neurocognitive Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Evidence from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories Purpose The objective of the present article was to document the extent to which early expressive language skills (measured using the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories [CDI; Fenson et al., 2006 ]) predict long-term neurocognitive outcomes in a sample of early-implanted prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. Method The CDI ... Research Article
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Research Article  |   August 01, 2016
Early Expressive Language Skills Predict Long-Term Neurocognitive Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Evidence from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Irina Castellanos
    The Ohio State University, Columbus
  • David B. Pisoni
    Indiana University, Bloomington
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • William G. Kronenberger
    Indiana University, Bloomington
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Jessica Beer
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence: Irina Castellanos: Irina.Castellanos@osumc.edu
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Li Sheng
    Associate Editor: Li Sheng×
Article Information
Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2016
Early Expressive Language Skills Predict Long-Term Neurocognitive Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Evidence from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2016, Vol. 25, 381-392. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0023
History: Received March 6, 2015 , Revised August 7, 2015 , Accepted December 18, 2015
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2016, Vol. 25, 381-392. doi:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0023
History: Received March 6, 2015; Revised August 7, 2015; Accepted December 18, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Purpose The objective of the present article was to document the extent to which early expressive language skills (measured using the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories [CDI; Fenson et al., 2006 ]) predict long-term neurocognitive outcomes in a sample of early-implanted prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users.

Method The CDI was used to index the early expressive language skills of 32 pediatric CI users after an average of 1.03 years (SD = 0.56, range = 0.39–2.17) of CI experience. Long-term neurocognitive outcomes were assessed after an average of 11.32 (SD = 2.54, range = 7.08–16.52) years of CI experience. Measures of long-term neurocognitive outcomes were derived from gold-standard performance-based and questionnaire-based assessments of language, executive functioning, and academic skills.

Result Analyses revealed that early expressive language skills, collected on average 1.03 years post cochlear implantation, predicted long-term language, executive functioning, and academic skills up to 16 years later.

Conclusion These findings suggest that early expressive language skills, as indexed by the CDI, are clinically relevant for identifying CI users who may be at high risk for long-term neurocognitive delays and disturbances.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants R01 DC009581 (awarded to David B. Pisoni and William G. Kronenberger) and T32 DC00012 (awarded to David B. Pisoni) and by National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Grant TL1 TR001107 (awarded to Irina Castellanos).
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