Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by ... Review Article
Review Article  |   November 2015
Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ray D. Kent
    Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The author has declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Ray D. Kent: kent@waisman.wisc.edu
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Rebecca McCauley
    Associate Editor: Rebecca McCauley×
  • Copyright © 2015 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Review Articles
Review Article   |   November 2015
Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2015, Vol. 24, 763-789. doi:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0179
History: Received October 10, 2014 , Revised April 2, 2015 , Accepted June 13, 2015
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2015, Vol. 24, 763-789. doi:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0179
History: Received October 10, 2014; Revised April 2, 2015; Accepted June 13, 2015
Acknowledgments
This work was supported in part by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant R01 DC6282 (MRI and CT Studies of the Developing Vocal Tract), awarded to Houri K. Vorperian, and by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Grant P-30 HD03352, awarded to the Waisman Center. This review article had its genesis in discussions with Houri K. Vorperian. Erin Wilson made helpful comments on an earlier version of the review article.

Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert.

Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control.

Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article.

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