Adolescent Outcomes of Children With Early Speech Sound Disorders With and Without Language Impairment Purpose In this study, the authors determined adolescent speech, language, and literacy outcomes of individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without comorbid language impairment (LI) and examined factors associated with these outcomes. Method This study used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants with ... Research Article
Research Article  |   May 2015
Adolescent Outcomes of Children With Early Speech Sound Disorders With and Without Language Impairment
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Barbara A. Lewis
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Lisa Freebairn
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Jessica Tag
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Allison A. Ciesla
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Sudha K. Iyengar
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Catherine M. Stein
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • H. Gerry Taylor
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Barbara A. Lewis: bxl@case.edu
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Lynn Williams
    Associate Editor: Lynn Williams×
  • Copyright © 2015 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Development / Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Normal Language Processing / Language Disorders / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   May 2015
Adolescent Outcomes of Children With Early Speech Sound Disorders With and Without Language Impairment
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2015, Vol. 24, 150-163. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-14-0075
History: Received October 23, 2014 , Revised October 23, 2014 , Accepted October 27, 2014
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2015, Vol. 24, 150-163. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-14-0075
History: Received October 23, 2014; Revised October 23, 2014; Accepted October 27, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Purpose In this study, the authors determined adolescent speech, language, and literacy outcomes of individuals with histories of early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) with and without comorbid language impairment (LI) and examined factors associated with these outcomes.

Method This study used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants with SSD (n = 170), enrolled at early childhood (4–6 years) were followed at adolescence (11–18 years) and were compared to individuals with no histories of speech or language impairment (no SSD; n = 146) on measures of speech, language, and literacy. Comparisons were made between adolescents with early childhood histories of no SSD, SSD only, and SSD plus LI as well as between adolescents with no SSD, resolved SSD, and persistent SSD.

Results Individuals with early childhood SSD with comorbid LI had poorer outcomes than those with histories of SSD only or no SSD. Poorer language and literacy outcomes in adolescence were associated with multiple factors, including persistent speech sound problems, lower nonverbal intelligence, and lower socioeconomic status. Adolescents with persistent SSD had higher rates of comorbid LI and reading disability than the no SSD and resolved SSD groups.

Conclusion Risk factors for language and literacy problems in adolescence include an early history of LI, persistent SSD, lower nonverbal cognitive ability, and social disadvantage.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants DC000528 (awarded to Barbara A. Lewis) and DC012380 (awarded to Sudha K. Iyengar).
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