Surface Electrical Stimulation Perturbation Context Determines the Presence of Error Reduction in Swallowing Hyolaryngeal Kinematics Purpose Error-based learning (EBL) involves gradually reducing movement errors caused by a perturbation. When the perturbation has been unexpectedly removed, exaggerated movements occur in the opposite direction of a perturbation effect, known as aftereffects. Our goal was to determine whether the perturbation type impacts error reduction or aftereffects in swallowing ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2015
Surface Electrical Stimulation Perturbation Context Determines the Presence of Error Reduction in Swallowing Hyolaryngeal Kinematics
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ianessa A. Humbert
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
  • Heather Christopherson
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
  • Akshay Lokhande
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Ianessa A. Humbert: ihumber1@jhmi.edu
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer
    Associate Editor: Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer×
Article Information
Swallowing, Dysphagia & Feeding Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2015
Surface Electrical Stimulation Perturbation Context Determines the Presence of Error Reduction in Swallowing Hyolaryngeal Kinematics
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 2015, Vol. 24, 72-80. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-14-0045
History: Received March 25, 2014 , Revised July 25, 2014 , Accepted November 2, 2014
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 2015, Vol. 24, 72-80. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-14-0045
History: Received March 25, 2014; Revised July 25, 2014; Accepted November 2, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Purpose Error-based learning (EBL) involves gradually reducing movement errors caused by a perturbation. When the perturbation has been unexpectedly removed, exaggerated movements occur in the opposite direction of a perturbation effect, known as aftereffects. Our goal was to determine whether the perturbation type impacts error reduction or aftereffects in swallowing hyolaryngeal kinematics.

Method We perturbed peak hyolaryngeal elevation during swallowing in 16 healthy adults with surface electrical stimulation (SES) in 2 different ways during videofluoroscopy: intermittent SES (I-SES) was applied only during swallowing, and continuous SES (C-SES) was applied during swallowing and during interswallow intervals. In C-SES and I-SES, the onset and offset of the perturbation were unmasked.

Results Only the C-SES perturbation caused error reduction (gradually increasing peak elevation). Aftereffects were absent in both perturbations, unlike findings from our previous study with masked perturbation. Furthermore, the duration of laryngeal vestibule closure (dLVC) increased during the I-SES perturbation but was unchanged during C-SES perturbation.

Conclusion EBL of swallowing airway protection events was strongly influenced by the context of the perturbation. These findings also elucidate how the relationship among critical swallowing airway protection events (hyoid peak, laryngeal peak, and dLVC) can be modified during EBL.

Acknowledgment
This research was funded by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grant 1K23DC010776-01, 2009–2014, awarded to the first author (Ianessa A. Humbert).
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