Conceptual Scoring of Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Measures in Simultaneous and Sequential Bilingual Children Purpose The authors examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Method Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish–English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilingual children, ages 5–7. The ... Research Article
Research Article  |   November 01, 2014
Conceptual Scoring of Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Measures in Simultaneous and Sequential Bilingual Children
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Megan Gross
    University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • Milijana Buac
    University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • Margarita Kaushanskaya
    University of Wisconsin—Madison
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Margarita Kaushanskaya: kaushanskaya@wisc.edu
  • Editor: Krista Wilkinson
    Editor: Krista Wilkinson×
  • Associate Editor: Elizabeth Peña
    Associate Editor: Elizabeth Peña×
Article Information
Research Articles
Research Article   |   November 01, 2014
Conceptual Scoring of Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Measures in Simultaneous and Sequential Bilingual Children
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2014, Vol. 23, 574-586. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-13-0026
History: Received March 11, 2013 , Revised November 13, 2013 , Accepted April 23, 2014
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2014, Vol. 23, 574-586. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-13-0026
History: Received March 11, 2013; Revised November 13, 2013; Accepted April 23, 2014

Purpose The authors examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish.

Method Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish–English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilingual children, ages 5–7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for those who were bilingual. After the standardized administration, bilingual children were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score.

Results Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilingual children scored significantly below monolingual children on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children in the receptive modality but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolingual and sequential bilingual children in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups, conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range.

Conclusion Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilingual children, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically developing simultaneous bilingual children.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grants R03 DC010465-01 and R01 DC011750 awarded to Margarita Kaushanskaya, Training Grant T32 HD049899-08 awarded to Megan Gross, and the NIH Diversity Supplement R03 DC0104565-01 and Training Grant T32 DC005359-10 awarded to Milijana Buac. We thank Barbara Pearson for her insightful suggestions about the uses and limitations of conceptual scoring. We acknowledge Christina Ausick for experiment development; Michelle Batko, Nicole Compty, Katie Engh, Regina Estrada, Kiran Gosal, Allison Holt, Shu-ting Hsieh, Liz Jaramillo, Hailey Kuettner, Eva Lopez, Jessica Martalock, Breana Mudrock, Nivi Nair, Sarah Naumann, Emily Silverberg, and Kris Wright for assistance with recruitment, data collection, and coding; and members of the Language Acquisition and Bilingualism Lab for helpful comments during the preparation of this article. In addition, we are grateful to Sara Lopez, Eduardo Montoya (Iglesia Presbiteriana Ebenezer), and Gerson and Lillian Amaya (Iglesia Evangelica Haziel) for providing community testing space. Finally, we deeply appreciate all of the children and parents who participated in the study.
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