Speech Sound Production in 2-Year-Olds Who Are Hard of Hearing Purpose The purpose of the study was to (a) compare the speech sound production abilities of 2-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) to children with normal hearing (NH), (b) identify sources of risk for individual children who are HH, and (c) determine whether speech sound production skills at ... Research Article
Research Article  |   May 01, 2014
Speech Sound Production in 2-Year-Olds Who Are Hard of Hearing
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Sophie E. Ambrose
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Center for Childhood Deafness, Omaha, NE
  • Lauren M. Unflat Berry
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Center for Childhood Deafness, Omaha, NE
  • Elizabeth A. Walker
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Melody Harrison
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  • Jacob Oleson
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Mary Pat Moeller
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Center for Childhood Deafness, Omaha, NE
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Sophie E. Ambrose: sophie.ambrose@boystown.org
  • Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer
    Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer×
  • Associate Editor: Peter Flipsen, Jr.
    Associate Editor: Peter Flipsen, Jr.×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   May 01, 2014
Speech Sound Production in 2-Year-Olds Who Are Hard of Hearing
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2014, Vol. 23, 91-104. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-13-0039
History: Received April 5, 2013 , Revised August 5, 2013 , Accepted October 27, 2013
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2014, Vol. 23, 91-104. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-13-0039
History: Received April 5, 2013; Revised August 5, 2013; Accepted October 27, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3

Purpose The purpose of the study was to (a) compare the speech sound production abilities of 2-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) to children with normal hearing (NH), (b) identify sources of risk for individual children who are HH, and (c) determine whether speech sound production skills at age 2 were predictive of speech sound production skills at age 3.

Method Seventy children with bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss who use hearing aids and 37 age- and socioeconomic status–matched children with NH participated. Children's speech sound production abilities were assessed at 2 and 3 years of age.

Results At age 2, the HH group demonstrated vowel production abilities on par with their NH peers but weaker consonant production abilities. Within the HH group, better outcomes were associated with hearing aid fittings by 6 months of age, hearing loss of less than 45 dB HL, stronger vocabulary scores, and being female. Positive relationships existed between children's speech sound production abilities at 2 and 3 years of age.

Conclusion Assessment of early speech sound production abilities in combination with demographic, audiologic, and linguistic variables may be useful in identifying HH children who are at risk for delays in speech sound production.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) 5 R01DC009560 (co-principal investigators, J. Bruce Tomblin, University of Iowa and Mary Pat Moeller, Boys Town National Research Hospital) and T32 DC000013. The content of this project is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders or the National Institutes of Health. We thank the children and families who participated in this project. We also thank Bruce Tomblin, David Ertmer, Pat Stelmachowicz, Ryan McCreery, and Carol Stoel-Gammon for their comments on earlier versions of this article. In addition, gratitude for statistical support is extended to Anne Welhaven and Ryan McCreery.
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