Treating Speech Subsystems in Childhood Apraxia of Speech With Tactual Input: The PROMPT Approach Purpose Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT; Hayden, 2004; Hayden, Eigen, Walker, & Olsen, 2010)—a treatment approach for the improvement of speech sound disorders in children—uses tactile-kinesthetic-proprioceptive (TKP) cues to support and shape movements of the oral articulators. No research to date has systematically examined the efficacy of ... Research Article
Research Article  |   November 01, 2013
Treating Speech Subsystems in Childhood Apraxia of Speech With Tactual Input: The PROMPT Approach
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Philip S. Dale
    University of New Mexico, Albuquerque
  • Deborah A. Hayden
    PROMPT Institute, Santa Fe, NM
  • Correspondence to Philip S. Dale: dalep@unm.edu
  • Editor: Jody Kreiman
    Editor: Jody Kreiman×
  • Associate Editor: Ken Bleile
    Associate Editor: Ken Bleile×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Research Articles
Research Article   |   November 01, 2013
Treating Speech Subsystems in Childhood Apraxia of Speech With Tactual Input: The PROMPT Approach
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2013, Vol. 22, 644-661. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2013/12-0055)
History: Received June 26, 2012 , Revised January 16, 2013 , Accepted May 16, 2013
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2013, Vol. 22, 644-661. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2013/12-0055)
History: Received June 26, 2012; Revised January 16, 2013; Accepted May 16, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 3

Purpose Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT; Hayden, 2004; Hayden, Eigen, Walker, & Olsen, 2010)—a treatment approach for the improvement of speech sound disorders in children—uses tactile-kinesthetic-proprioceptive (TKP) cues to support and shape movements of the oral articulators. No research to date has systematically examined the efficacy of PROMPT for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS).

Method Four children (ages 3;6 [years;months] to 4;8), all meeting the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2007)  criteria for CAS, were treated using PROMPT. All children received 8 weeks of 2 × per week treatment, including at least 4 weeks of full PROMPT treatment that included TKP cues. During the first 4 weeks, 2 of the 4 children received treatment that included all PROMPT components except TKP cues. This design permitted both between-subjects and within-subjects comparisons to evaluate the effect of TKP cues. Gains in treatment were measured by standardized tests and by criterion-referenced measures based on the production of untreated probe words, reflecting change in speech movements and auditory perceptual accuracy.

Results All 4 children made significant gains during treatment, but measures of motor speech control and untreated word probes provided evidence for more gain when TKP cues were included.

Conclusion PROMPT as a whole appears to be effective for treating children with CAS, and the inclusion of TKP cues appears to facilitate greater effect.

Acknowledgments
This research was funded by a grant from the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America, awarded to the two authors. We are grateful to Edwyna Alexander for her clinical input and expertise, and to the children and families who participated in this study.
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