Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children With Histories of Speech Sound Disorders Purpose To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were ... Research Article
Research Article  |   May 01, 2013
Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children With Histories of Speech Sound Disorders
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jonathan L. Preston
    Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven
    Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT
  • Margaret Hull
    Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven
  • Mary Louise Edwards
    Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY
  • Correspondence to Jonathan L. Preston: preston@haskins.yale.edu
  • Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer
    Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer×
  • Associate Editor: Peter Flipsen Jr.
    Associate Editor: Peter Flipsen Jr.×
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / School-Based Settings / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   May 01, 2013
Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children With Histories of Speech Sound Disorders
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2013, Vol. 22, 173-184. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2012/12-0022)
History: Received March 1, 2012 , Accepted October 15, 2012
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, May 2013, Vol. 22, 173-184. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2012/12-0022)
History: Received March 1, 2012; Accepted October 15, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 16

Purpose To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later.

Method Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up at age 8;3. The frequency of occurrence of preschool distortion errors, typical substitution and syllable structure errors, and atypical substitution and syllable structure errors was used to predict later speech sound production, PA, and literacy outcomes.

Results Group averages revealed below-average school-age articulation scores and low-average PA but age-appropriate reading and spelling. Preschool speech error patterns were related to school-age outcomes. Children for whom >10% of their speech sound errors were atypical had lower PA and literacy scores at school age than children who produced <10% atypical errors. Preschoolers who produced more distortion errors were likely to have lower school-age articulation scores than preschoolers who produced fewer distortion errors.

Conclusion Different preschool speech error patterns predict different school-age clinical outcomes. Many atypical speech sound errors in preschoolers may be indicative of weak phonological representations, leading to long-term PA weaknesses. Preschoolers' distortions may be resistant to change over time, leading to persisting speech sound production problems.

Acknowledgments
Research support was provided by a donation to the LEARN Center at Haskins Laboratories and by Grant P01HD001994 from the National Institutes of Health.
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