An Analysis of the Test of Language Development—Primary for Item Bias The purpose of this research was to examine the Test of Language Development-P:2 (TOLD-P:2; Newcomer & Hammill, 1991) for item bias. The TOLD-P:2 was administered to 235 African American and 1,481 White kindergarten children living in the Midwest. Test items were examined for evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) using ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 01, 2002
An Analysis of the Test of Language Development—Primary for Item Bias
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Carol Scheffner Hammer, PhD
    The Pennsylvania State University, University Park
  • Maria Pennock-Roman
    The Pennsylvania State University, University Park
  • Sarah Rzasa
    The Pennsylvania State University, University Park
  • J. Bruce Tomblin
    The University of Iowa, Ames
  • Contact author: Carol Scheffner Hammer, PhD, Department of Communication Disorders, 110 Moore Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: cjh22@email.psu.edu
Article Information
Development / Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Research Articles
Research Article   |   August 01, 2002
An Analysis of the Test of Language Development—Primary for Item Bias
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2002, Vol. 11, 274-284. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2002/032)
History: Received October 12, 2000 , Accepted October 20, 2001
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2002, Vol. 11, 274-284. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2002/032)
History: Received October 12, 2000; Accepted October 20, 2001
Web of Science® Times Cited: 10

The purpose of this research was to examine the Test of Language Development-P:2 (TOLD-P:2; Newcomer & Hammill, 1991) for item bias. The TOLD-P:2 was administered to 235 African American and 1,481 White kindergarten children living in the Midwest. Test items were examined for evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) using inferential and descriptive methods. Sixteen percent of all items of the TOLD-P:2 were found to have DIF. Of these items, 75% were found to be harder for the African American group. The percentages of items on the five core subtests identified as having DIF were as follows: Picture Vocabulary, 17%; Oral Vocabulary, 17%; Grammatic Understanding, 12%; Sentence Imitation, 20%; and Grammatic Completion, 13%. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the TOLD-P:3.

Acknowledgments
This study was supported by a contract NIH-DC-19-90 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, a Clinical Research Center NIDCD PODC02746, and a grant 1R01-HD39496-01 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
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