The Association of Intervention Receipt With Speech-Language Profiles and Social-Demographic Variables This study explored the effects of oral communication and demographic characteristics on intervention receipt. Oral communication characteristics included speech-sound production and receptive and expressive language status. Demographic characteristics included race, sex, residential strata, and neighborhood income level. With regard to speech-sound production and language, 1,929 kindergartners were divided into four ... Research Article
Research Article  |   November 01, 2000
The Association of Intervention Receipt With Speech-Language Profiles and Social-Demographic Variables
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Xuyang Zhang
    The University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • J. Bruce Tomblin
    The University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Contact author: Xuyang Zhang, PhD, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, 3 WJSHC, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1012. E-mail: xuyang-zhang@uiowa.edu
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Professional Issues & Training / Normal Language Processing / Language Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   November 01, 2000
The Association of Intervention Receipt With Speech-Language Profiles and Social-Demographic Variables
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2000, Vol. 9, 345-357. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0904.345
History: Received August 11, 2000 , Accepted October 10, 2000
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2000, Vol. 9, 345-357. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0904.345
History: Received August 11, 2000; Accepted October 10, 2000

This study explored the effects of oral communication and demographic characteristics on intervention receipt. Oral communication characteristics included speech-sound production and receptive and expressive language status. Demographic characteristics included race, sex, residential strata, and neighborhood income level. With regard to speech-sound production and language, 1,929 kindergartners were divided into four speech-language subgroups: speech impaired only, language impaired only, speech and language impaired, and normal in both speech and language. In terms of expressive and receptive language modalities, the group of children was divided into four expressive-receptive subgroups: expressive impaired only, receptive impaired only, expressive and receptive impaired, and normal in both expressive and receptive language. Associations of speech versus language and expressive language versus receptive language with intervention receipt were examined in both categorical and continuous manners. Results showed that speech had a stronger effect on intervention receipt than language, but that this difference could not be explained by the effect of speech on social and academic functions compared to that of language. Expressive language had a stronger effect on intervention receipt than receptive language (when treated as continuous variables). This also could not be explained by the effect of these variables on social and academic function. These results suggest that the current referral and service delivery system depends on communication characteristics that are expressive and, thus, most readily observable. This referral and service delivery approach, however, fails to identify children that have the greatest social and academic risks. Methods of reversing this trend were discussed. Among all demographic variables examined, only sex is related to intervention receipt, that is, boys were more likely to have received intervention.

Author Notes
This study was supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders through contract NIH-DC-19-90 and clinical research center grant P0-DC-02748 awarded to Dr. J. Bruce Tomblin.
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