Increasing the Print Focus of Adult-Child Shared Book Reading Through Observational Learning An instructional strategy for increasing adults’ verbal and nonverbal references to print while reading to typically developing 4-year-old children was evaluated. Also investigated were the effects of adults’ use of references to print on children’s verbal interactions with print. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, 24 female graduate students in ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2000
Increasing the Print Focus of Adult-Child Shared Book Reading Through Observational Learning
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Helen K. Ezell
    Ohio University, Athens
  • Laura M. Justice
    Ohio University, Athens
  • Contact author: Helen K. Ezell, School of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Lindley Hall, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701.
    Contact author: Helen K. Ezell, School of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Lindley Hall, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701.×
Article Information
Development / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Normal Language Processing / Language Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2000
Increasing the Print Focus of Adult-Child Shared Book Reading Through Observational Learning
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 2000, Vol. 9, 36-47. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0901.36
History: Received July 15, 1999 , Accepted December 17, 1999
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 2000, Vol. 9, 36-47. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0901.36
History: Received July 15, 1999; Accepted December 17, 1999

An instructional strategy for increasing adults’ verbal and nonverbal references to print while reading to typically developing 4-year-old children was evaluated. Also investigated were the effects of adults’ use of references to print on children’s verbal interactions with print. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, 24 female graduate students in speech-language pathology or audiology were matched on their amount of previous clinical experience with young children and were assigned to an experimental or control group. Those in the experimental group viewed a brief video that demonstrated the use of three verbal references (comments, questions, and requests) and two nonverbal references to print (tracking and pointing to print). Results indicated that both groups showed few references to print at pretest. However, the experimental group used all five reference types significantly more often than the control group at posttest. In addition, the proportion of children’s verbal utterances referring to print significantly increased for those children reading with adults who had received instruction. Clinical implications are discussed.

Author Note
Funding for this study was provided by the College of Health and Human Services at Ohio University, a John Houk Memorial Research Grant, and the Ohio University Research Committee Discretionary Fund. The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge Sam Girton for his expert assistance with video production and the Holmes family for their valuable contributions to the video project. Thanks also are due to Cindy Poole for her advice regarding statistical analysis and Elissa Garske for her assistance with participant recruitment. We are also grateful for the cooperation and participation of the families and graduate students who participated in this project.
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