Real-Time Spectrographic Displays in Vowel Production Training With Children Who Have Profound Hearing Loss The effectiveness of vowel production training with real-time spectrographic displays was assessed for two children with profound hearing loss. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors, with replication across subjects, was implemented to determine if vowel production accuracy improved following the introduction of treatment. Listener judgments of vowel correctness were obtained during ... Clinical Focus
Clinical Focus  |   November 01, 1996
Real-Time Spectrographic Displays in Vowel Production Training With Children Who Have Profound Hearing Loss
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • David J. Ertmer
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Rachel E. Stark
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • George R. Karlan
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
  • Contact author: David J. Ertmer, PhD, Audiology and Speech Sciences, Heavilon Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907
    Contact author: David J. Ertmer, PhD, Audiology and Speech Sciences, Heavilon Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Clinical Focus
Clinical Focus   |   November 01, 1996
Real-Time Spectrographic Displays in Vowel Production Training With Children Who Have Profound Hearing Loss
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 1996, Vol. 5, 4-16. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0504.04
History: Received August 7, 1995 , Accepted May 8, 1996
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 1996, Vol. 5, 4-16. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0504.04
History: Received August 7, 1995; Accepted May 8, 1996

The effectiveness of vowel production training with real-time spectrographic displays was assessed for two children with profound hearing loss. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors, with replication across subjects, was implemented to determine if vowel production accuracy improved following the introduction of treatment. Listener judgments of vowel correctness were obtained during the baseline, training, and follow-up sessions. Data were analyzed through visual inspection of changes in levels of accuracy, changes in trends for accuracy data, and changes in variability within and across phases. One subject showed significant improvement for all trained vowel targets; the second subject showed significant improvement for the first trained target only. Performance trends for training sessions suggest that continued treatment would have resulted in further improvement for both subjects. Vowels that received the most training were maintained at higher levels than those that were introduced later in training. Some generalization of practiced vowel targets to untrained words was observed in both subjects.

Acknowledgments
This work, completed as a dissertation by the first author, was supported in part through grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH-DCT3200030) and the Purdue University Research Foundation. Sensimetric SpeechStation hardware and software were supplied by Ariel Corporation of Highland Park, New Jersey. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Shelley Bassham and Lisa Goffman in estimating data reliability and Theresa Ruesgen in data analysis. We also wish to thank Eugene Buder and Carol Stoel-Gammon for sharing a macro that they developed for acoustic analysis. Comments and suggestions from Michael Lynch, Mary Joe Osberger, Emily Tobey, Nickola Wolf-Nelson, and anonymous reviewers during the preparation of this manuscript are gratefully acknowledged. We are especially indebted to the subjects themselves, their parents, and the professional staff of the Wayne Township school corporation for their cooperation in this project.
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