Stress, Anxiety, Somatic Complaints, and Voice Use in Women With Vocal Nodules Preliminary Findings Clinical Focus
Clinical Focus  |   February 01, 1996
Stress, Anxiety, Somatic Complaints, and Voice Use in Women With Vocal Nodules
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Susan L. Goldman
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston
  • Joan Hargrave
    Boston University
  • Robert E. Hillman
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston; Harvard Medical School, Cambridge; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
  • Eva Holmberg
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
  • Carla Gress
    University of California, San Francisco
  • Contact author: Susan L. Goldman, Voice and Speech Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114-3096
Article Information
Clinical Focus
Clinical Focus   |   February 01, 1996
Stress, Anxiety, Somatic Complaints, and Voice Use in Women With Vocal Nodules
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 1996, Vol. 5, 44-54. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0501.44
History: Received November 8, 1994 , Accepted October 2, 1995
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 1996, Vol. 5, 44-54. doi:10.1044/1058-0360.0501.44
History: Received November 8, 1994; Accepted October 2, 1995

Psychosocial factors long have been associated with the development of hyperfunctional voice disorders such as vocal nodules. However, experimental evidence concerning the role of these factors in the etiology of vocal nodules specifically is sparse. The present study represents a preliminary examination of some psychosocial factors for 3 groups of adult female subjects: 27 with vocal nodules, 17 with hyperfunctionally related voice disorders other than nodules (pathological control), and 33 with no history of voice disorders (normal control). Four psychosocial factors were studied: stress (measured by the Social Readjustment Rating Questionnaire), anxiety (measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), voice use, and somatic complaints (both measured by our own instruments). Relative to the normal control group, the patients with nodules showed significantly increased scores on all factors except stress. The pathological control group showed significantly increased scores on all factors except voice use. No significant differences were found between the group with nodules and the pathological control group on any factor. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for clinical practice and future research.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by Grant R01-DC00266 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. We wish to thank two anonymous reviewers and the associate editor for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. In addition, we would like to thank Peter Guiod for his help with the data analysis.
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