Consonant Production Accuracy in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients: Developmental Sound Classes and Word Position Effects Purpose To compare young cochlear implant (CI) recipients' consonant production accuracy with that of age- and gender-matched peers who were typically developing (TD). In addition to examining initial consonants, the authors compiled new data regarding the accuracy of final consonants and the order of consonant acquisition. Methods Eleven ... Research Article
Research Article  |   November 01, 2012
Consonant Production Accuracy in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients: Developmental Sound Classes and Word Position Effects
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • David J. Ertmer
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA
  • Diana True Kloiber
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA
  • Jongmin Jung
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA
  • Katie Connell Kirleis
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA
  • Denise Bradford
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA
  • Correspondence to David J. Ertmer: dertmer@purdue.edu
  • Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer
    Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer×
  • Associate Editor: Peter Flipsen
    Associate Editor: Peter Flipsen×
Article Information
Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Articles
Research Article   |   November 01, 2012
Consonant Production Accuracy in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients: Developmental Sound Classes and Word Position Effects
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2012, Vol. 21, 342-353. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2012/11-0118)
History: Revised February 12, 2011 , Received August 30, 2011 , Accepted May 27, 2012
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, November 2012, Vol. 21, 342-353. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2012/11-0118)
History: Revised February 12, 2011; Received August 30, 2011; Accepted May 27, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 11

Purpose To compare young cochlear implant (CI) recipients' consonant production accuracy with that of age- and gender-matched peers who were typically developing (TD). In addition to examining initial consonants, the authors compiled new data regarding the accuracy of final consonants and the order of consonant acquisition.

Methods Eleven young CI recipients with 24 months of CI experience and 11 age- and gender-matched TD peers produced target words in short sentences. Consonant production accuracy was examined for total scores, initial and final word positions, and three developmental sound classes: Early, Middle, and Late.

Results Initial consonants were produced with relatively greater accuracy than were final consonants by the TD and CI groups. Whereas initial consonants appeared to be acquired in a typical order, descriptive data suggest that this might not be the case for final consonants.

Conclusions Although still delayed compared to age-matched peers, young CI recipients showed substantial progress in consonant acquisition. Their accuracy levels after 2 years of CI experience support the notion that implantation at a young age has added value for phonological development.

Acknowledgments
This research was funded by Grant R01DC007863 to the first author from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. We are very grateful to the parents and children who made this study possible. Sincere appreciation is also offered to Michele Wilkins, Wendy Ban Deters, Monica Brumbaugh, Jennifer Haney, Monica Lynch, and Lyra Repplinger at Child’s Voice school (Wood Dale, IL); Maria Sentelik, Margo Appenzeller, Megan Mercurio, Carey Evans Ratliff, and Meredith Wessels of Ohio Valley Voices (Loveland, OH); Mary Daniels, Cheryl Broekelmann, Kathy Gallagher, Barb Meyers, Judy Odendahl, and Audrea Strelo at the St. Joseph Institute for the Deaf (Chesterfield, MO); Teri Ouellette and Carrie Tamminga at the St. Joseph Institute for the Deaf (Indianapolis, IN); and Jean Moog, Betsy Moog, Rhonda Bennight, Mariana Helbig, and Laurie Preusser at the Moog Center (Chesterfield, MO) for their indispensable assistance in recruiting participants and collecting data. Stephanie Wieczorek assisted in data analysis.
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