Feedback Frequency in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech PurposeTo examine the role of feedback frequency in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Reducing the frequency of feedback enhances motor learning, and recently, such feedback frequency reductions have been recommended for the treatment of CAS. However, no published studies have explicitly compared different feedback frequencies in this population.MethodUsing ... Research Article
Research Article  |   August 2012
Feedback Frequency in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Edwin Maas
    University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Christine E. Butalla
    University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Kimberly A. Farinella
    University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Correspondence to Edwin Maas: emaas@arizona.edu
  • Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer
    Editor: Carol Scheffner Hammer×
  • Associate Editor: Ken Bleile
    Associate Editor: Ken Bleile×
  • © 2012 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Article Information
Speech, Voice & Prosodic Disorders / Apraxia of Speech & Childhood Apraxia of Speech / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Research Article
Research Article   |   August 2012
Feedback Frequency in Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2012, Vol. 21, 239-257. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2012/11-0119)
History: Received August 31, 2011 , Revised January 9, 2012 , Accepted March 9, 2012
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, August 2012, Vol. 21, 239-257. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2012/11-0119)
History: Received August 31, 2011; Revised January 9, 2012; Accepted March 9, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 7

PurposeTo examine the role of feedback frequency in treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Reducing the frequency of feedback enhances motor learning, and recently, such feedback frequency reductions have been recommended for the treatment of CAS. However, no published studies have explicitly compared different feedback frequencies in this population.

MethodUsing an alternating treatments single-subject design with multiple baselines across behaviors, retention and transfer of learning were compared following high-frequency feedback and low-frequency feedback in 4 children with CAS. Feedback frequency was manipulated in the context of an integral stimulation treatment. Changes in perceptual accuracy were quantified with effect sizes and were compared across conditions.

ResultsFindings were mixed, with 2 children showing an advantage for low-frequency feedback, 1 child showing a small advantage for high-frequency feedback, and 1 child showing no clear improvement in either condition.

ConclusionThese findings suggest that reducing the frequency of feedback may be beneficial for some children with CAS, although this may vary with the child’s age or severity of apraxia. Caution is warranted in extrapolating from the nonspeech motor learning literature to speech treatment for CAS. Finally, this study contributes another replication to the literature on the efficacy of integral stimulation treatment for children with CAS.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported in part by a generous grant from the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America (CASANA). The authors also wish to thank Cass Faux, Lydia Garcia, and Becky Vance for their assistance in identifying potential participants; Jenna Beltrami for assistance in treatment delivery; Lawrence Andrade, Ashley Davis, Krista Durr, Kelly Gallardo, and Amanda Lopez for their assistance with data analysis; and of course, the children and their parents who participated in this study. Portions of these data were presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention (Philadelphia, PA, 2010), the National Conference on Childhood Apraxia of Speech (Pittsburgh, PA, 2010), and the Arizona Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention (Phoenix, AZ, 2011); portions of these data were also part of Christine Butalla’s master’s thesis at the University of Arizona.
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