Early-, Middle-, and Late-Developing Sounds in Monolingual and Bilingual Children: An Exploratory Investigation Purpose To examine the accuracy of early-, middle-, and late-developing (EML) sounds in Spanish-English bilingual children and their monolingual peers. Method Twenty-four typically developing children, age 3–4 years, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, 8 monolingual Spanish speakers, and 8 monolingual English speakers. Single-word speech ... Research Article
Research Article  |   February 01, 2010
Early-, Middle-, and Late-Developing Sounds in Monolingual and Bilingual Children: An Exploratory Investigation
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Leah Fabiano-Smith
    State University of New York at New Paltz
  • Brian A. Goldstein
    Temple University, Philadelphia
  • Contact author: Leah Fabiano-Smith, State University of New York at New Paltz, Department of Communication Disorders, 1 Hawk Drive, New Paltz, NY 12561-2440. E-mail: fabianol@newpaltz.edu.
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Research Articles
Research Article   |   February 01, 2010
Early-, Middle-, and Late-Developing Sounds in Monolingual and Bilingual Children: An Exploratory Investigation
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 2010, Vol. 19, 66-77. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2009/08-0036)
History: Received May 30, 2008 , Revised December 4, 2008 , Accepted July 13, 2009
 
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, February 2010, Vol. 19, 66-77. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2009/08-0036)
History: Received May 30, 2008; Revised December 4, 2008; Accepted July 13, 2009
Web of Science® Times Cited: 16

Purpose To examine the accuracy of early-, middle-, and late-developing (EML) sounds in Spanish-English bilingual children and their monolingual peers.

Method Twenty-four typically developing children, age 3–4 years, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, 8 monolingual Spanish speakers, and 8 monolingual English speakers. Single-word speech samples were obtained to examine (a) differences on the accuracy of EML sounds between Spanish-English bilingual children and monolingual Spanish and monolingual English children and (b) the developmental trend on the accuracy of EML sounds within languages for Spanish-English bilingual children and monolingual Spanish and monolingual English children.

Results Findings support those of Shriberg (1993)  for English-speaking children and suggest possible EML categories for monolingual Spanish-speaking children and bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children.

Conclusions These exploratory findings indicate the need for longitudinal examination of EML categories with a larger cohort of children to observe similarities and differences between monolingual and bilingual development.

Acknowledgments
We would like to express our gratitude to the children and families who participated in this project, both in the United States and Mexico. We also thank Ferenc Bunta and Aquiles Iglesias at Temple University; Donna Jackson Maldonado, Rosa Patricia Bárcenas Acosta, and Martha Beatríz Soto Martínez at the Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro; and Vanessa González and Andrea Fisher, who performed phonetic transcription and participated in analyses of reliability.
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